Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases <p><strong><em> Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases</em></strong><em> <strong>(AJID)</strong> </em>is the official publication of Ghalib University launched in 2022. Ghalib University is one of the well-known academic centers of Afghanistan, which has always focused on research in the field of medical sciences, especially infectious diseases. Medical Sciences Research Center of Ghalib University is one of Afghanistan's scientific centers that has published many articles and the office of <em>Afghan</em><em>istan</em><em> Journal of Infectious Diseases</em> is located in this center. Publicity activities, and consultation on the parasitic diseases, and intimate relationship among society members. Afghanistan is one of the countries where infectious diseases are one of the major public health problems. Therefore, it is necessary to launch a journal that can publish various articles about infectious diseases and reflect their status in Afghanistan and the region. <em>AJID</em> is supported and published by Ghalib University of Herat and Kabul and appears twice a year.</p> <p> The main aims of the Journal are: contribution to the field of <strong>infectious diseases</strong>, including all aspects of infectious diseases like parasitology, virology, mycology, entomology and bacteriology (medical and veterinary) which may be submitted by scientists from Afghanistan and all over the world.</p> <p> It is highly appreciated to receive your <strong>Review articles, Original papers, Short com­munications, Case reports and letters to the Editor </strong>on the above mentioned research fields.</p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Place of publication:</strong> Afghanistan</span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"> <strong>Beginning of publication:</strong> 2023 </span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Publisher:</strong> Ghalib University </span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Frequency</strong>: Bi-Quarterly<br /></span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Subjects:</strong> Infectious Diseases </span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Free and open access:</strong> Yes</span></p> en-US (Dr. Sayed Hussain Mosawi (Ph.D)) (Asrar Ahmad Ehsan) Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 OJS 60 Investigation of behavioral disorders (aggression) among healthy and infected intestinal parasites children attending kindergarten in Sari City, North of Iran <p><strong>Background:</strong> The article explores the development of aggression in children in kindergartens in Sari City, examining the influence of psychological, social, biological, and environmental factors, including intestinal parasite infection, which can lead to neuropathic disorders, behavior, anemia, and malnutrition.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Between 2015 and 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 kindergarten children in Sari City, with 47 suffering from intestinal parasites and 53 suffering from the disease. Data was collected using grade tests and questionnaire sheets, using cluster sampling.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed that 24% of 24 children in kindergartens were aggressive, with 12 infected and 12 uninfected. There was no significant difference between children infected or uninfected, and no significant relationship was found between aggression rates in boys and girls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong> Our results demonstrate that, despite the significant relationship between aggression and intestinal parasite infection, the risk of exposure to aggression is higher in infected children, and the results represent that many factors should be studied about children’s aggression simultaneously.</p> Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi , Fatemeh Loghmani, Mahdi Fakhar, Majid Derakhshani Nia, Ogholniaz Jorjani, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 Enhancing Hydatid Cyst Classification with Deep Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks Using CT Scans <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hydatid cysts, caused by <em>Echinococcus granulosis</em>, are a serious health concern with potential complications. Traditional diagnostic methods, like clinical examination and imaging interpretation, can be subjective and error-prone. Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning techniques can revolutionize healthcare by enhancing disease detection and diagnosis, with the study focusing on precise detection and classification.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model was developed, utilizing image preprocessing techniques to accurately classify hydatid cysts in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Training relied on a curated dataset, enabling the model to learn and identify key patterns indicative of hydatid cyst presence and its stage detection in CT scan images.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The AI model employed in this study achieved a 90% accuracy in classifying hydatid cyst stages using CT scan images. By providing essential information about the cyst stage, healthcare professionals can accurately inform patients based on CT scan analysis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong> The study explores the use of AI and DL in hydatid cyst stage classification using a CNN model trained on CT scan images. The approach aims to reduce hydatid cyst growth rates by aiding in early detection, highlighting the significant transformation in the healthcare industry due to advancements in disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.</p> Mohammad Nazir Akbari, Abed Azizi Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 Integrating molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation approaches for investigation of the affinity and interactions of Berberine with Class C β-Lactamase <p><strong>Background:</strong> Antibiotic resistance is a significant health concern, as bacteria produce enzymes that inhibit antimicrobial drug activity, increasing disease generation. This study investigates the inhibitory effect of berberine on β-lactamase enzyme activity and antibiotic effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Molecular docking was utilized to find the binding pose and binding affinity of a new inhibitory ligand with the AmpC enzyme using Autodock software version 4.2.2. MD simulations were performed in free form and complicated to understand the stability of the protein-ligand docked complex.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The molecular docking result indicated the proper interaction between berberine and the AmpC β-lactamase enzyme with a suitable binding pose and binding energy of -6.55 kcal/mol. The MD simulation of systems verifies the docking result, which shows stable hydrogen bonds of berberine with AmpC and good equivalence between RMSD, RMSF, SASA, etc.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; This paper reveals that berberine, which is a natural ingredient with multiple medicinal characteristics, can be applied as a potential inhibitor of class C β-lactamase AmpC. Hence, the outcome of the calculations performed provides valuable data to design new inhibitors with therapeutic potential to control the β-lactamase activity.</p> Allah Nawaz Safi, Mohammad Sayed Behrad, Sayed Hussain Mosawi, Abdul Musawer Bayan Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 COVID-19 reinfection in Afghanistan: A descriptive analysis of data from DHIS2, 2022 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Despite millions of COVID-19 infections worldwide since the beginning of the pandemic, relatively few confirmed cases of COVID-19 reinfection have been reported. In Afghanistan, COVID-19 undetected cases are more than detected cases. This study aims to describe the burden of COVID-19 reinfection cases in Afghanistan, along with the epidemiological and demographical patterns.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive study of national-wide secondary data on COVID-19 reinfection cases was carried out from January to June 2022. Data were extracted from the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) and managed and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Epi Info V.7.2.1.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In 2022, 79 reinfection cases of COVID-19 were reported, with males being more affected than females. The mean age of re-infected patients was 39, with most from Wardak province. Most cases occurred within six months after the primary infection. Cough was more prevalent among reinfected cases. Only 26 patients had taken two doses of the vaccine, while 44 (55.70%) had not received it. Out of all cases, 44 (55.70%) were recovered and 5 (6.85%) died.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong> The COVID-19 reinfection rate is very low in Afghanistan, which was common in males since other cases might be unreported. Coughing was more common among reinfection patients. Relying on the results, vaccination and awareness-raising may play a protective role in reinfection; hence, enhancement of vaccination and taking preventive measures are recommended to prevent further reinfection.</p> Razia Soltany, Mir Salamuddin Hakim, Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed, Shoaib Naeemi Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 Evaluation of relation between vitamin D serum level and community acquired pneumonia in children between 1 to 60 months <p><strong>Background:</strong> Community-acquired pneumonia is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in children under five, particularly in developing countries. Low UV B exposure during winter can decrease serum vitamin D levels, which is a defense factor against microbial agents. This study aims to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and community-acquired pneumonia in children at Motahari Hospital in Urmia, despite the limited number of studies in this field. The findings could help improve the management of pneumonia in children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In the present study, 45 children admitted to Motahhari Hospital in Urmia with a diagnosis of pneumonia and 45 children without respiratory symptoms referred to health centers have been performed as evidence.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean of vitamin D in the case group was 31.28 ± 24.28 and less than the control group (34.43 ± 25.65), but no statistically significant difference was observed. Vitamin D deficiency is common in both groups. Community-based interventions for vitamin D deficiency appear necessary.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Various studies have shown several effects of vitamin D on health. The results of this study showed that vitamin D deficiency is common in both groups under study and of course in the case group this deficiency is more than it is recommended to take preventive interventions.</p> Rasoul Karghar, Ebrahim Sadeghi, Amin Nasimfar Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 De novo Histoid Leprosy of face mimicking Lupus Miliaris Disseminatus Faciei: An uncommon presentation <p><strong>Background: </strong>Background: Histoid leprosy is a rare variant of lepromatous leprosy with distinct clinical features and characteristic histopathology. It is diagnosed using classical histopathological findings and Fite staining, distinguishing it from dermatofibroma and neurofibroma using factor XIIIa and S100 on immunohistochemistry. A middle-aged female presented with facial lesions mimicking Lupus Miliaris Disseminatus Faciei (LMDF).</p> <p>Case report: A 35-year-old female with facial lesions for two months, previously treated with oral isotretinoin for acne vulgaris, presented with multiple papules. Differential diagnoses included lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF), multiple trichoepitheliomas, sarcoidosis, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). A slit skin smear examination revealed numerous acid fast bacilli, longer than normal lepra bacilli, and tapering ends. A punch biopsy revealed a grenz zone, an atrophic epidermis, sheets of elongated epithelioid cells with histoid habitus, and an inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis. A Fite stain was positive, confirming histoid leprosy. Multidrug treatment was initiated with rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone. LMDF is a rare dermatoses with asymptomatic papular eruptions over the face around the eyelids and epitheloid granuloma with caseous necrosis in the dermis.</p> <p>Conclusion: Several atypical presentations of histoid leprosy have already been described like Erythema nodosum like and figurate lesions. But LMDF like lesions is a rare presentation and it should be added to various morphological presentations of histoid leprosy.</p> Moin Ahmad Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 Malaria Crisis in Afghanistan: Urgent Action Needed to Combat the 45% Surge and Embrace Mosquirix Vaccination <p>N/A</p> Ali Rahimi, Shabanah Noorzai, Nasar Ahmad Shayan Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 Tissue engineering application on coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic: A review <p><strong>Background:</strong> The use of biomaterials in diagnosing and treating COVID-19 has been investigated in various forms and origins, including natural and synthetic materials. The development of rapid and highly sensitive biosensors based on field-effect transistors and the creation of antiviral platforms, vaccines, and nanomaterials have been the focus of most research on the application of biomaterials. Tissue engineering encompasses the study of tissue development, behavior, and growth factors that are more readily supported in the medical setting. This paper reviews the roles of biomaterials, tissue engineering, drug delivery, microfluidics, and 3D printing technologies in urgently responding to pandemics like COVID-19. In addition, this research covers a broad area of vaccines and treatments, reviewing the most promising candidate drugs and vaccines that have entered clinical trials to date. These engineering methods focus on biomaterials, drug delivery systems, and replacing damaged tissues and organs. Some biodegradable biomaterials, such as chitosan, mesoporous silica rods, and PLGA nanoparticles, have been utilized as vaccine platforms and can be employed in developing a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Notably, the proposed platform's size, shape, and other physicochemical characteristics should be carefully planned to achieve the desired effects on the immune system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong> Tissue engineers possess unique tools that can significantly advance our understanding of viral illnesses and aid in creating diagnostic and therapeutic platforms. Future research on COVID-19 infection and drug testing will benefit significantly from developing organ-on-a-chip technologies. Developing innovative biomaterial-based techniques for preventing, treating, and monitoring COVID-19 requires collaboration across multiple disciplines.</p> Saeedeh Zare Jalise, Sina Habibi Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 Genetic variation of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites in birds of Iran <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Plasmodium</em> and <em>Haemoproteus</em> are common parasites transferred to birds by Culicidae, Ceratopogonidae, and Hippoboscidae vectors. These parasites are of particular concern to healthcare researchers and veterinarians due to their impact on avian malaria, association with other animals and humans, and phylogenetic link with human <em>Plasmodium</em> species.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This bibliographic review article was designed to deliver a report on the avian malaria infections of <em>Plasmodium</em> spp. and <em>Haemoproteus</em> spp. in birds in Iran. Published reports in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct were used for this revision until April 2023.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The highest number of recorded infections with <em>Haemoproteus</em> spp. and <em>Plasmodium</em> spp. was found in Passeridae, as revealed by genetic analysis of <em>Cytb</em> DNA sequences. In this revision, following preceding investigations, the overall prevalence of <em>Haemoproteus </em>spp. was greater than that of <em>Plasmodium </em>spp. discovered by molecular techniques in Iran. Besides, the frequency of published genetic variants (lineages) of <em>Haemoproteus</em> is higher than that of <em>Plasmodium.</em> Our result indicated that the frequency of novel genetic variants <em>Haemoproteus </em>and <em>Plasmodium </em>in published reports was 38% and 12.5% of diagnosed lineages, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The region needs more studies to detect parasites in unexplored hosts and vectors, as there is a lack of research. Understanding the prevalence, epidemiology, transmission approach, and vectors of avian blood parasites is crucial for pet health care, zoos, parks, aviaries, and rehabilitation facilities.</p> Leila Nourani Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 Epidemiology and Outcomes of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Afghanistan: A Review of 2010–2019 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The study investigates the recent surge in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) cases in Afghanistan, a high-risk viral disease transmitted through tick bites and livestock, and aims to identify patterns of the increase and offer prevention strategies.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A systematic review of all scholarly articles published on CCHF in Afghanistan between 2010 and 2019 was conducted using a comprehensive and rigorous search strategy using the PubMed database. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> During the study period, 1537 suspected cases of CCHF were reported in Afghanistan, with the highest number and deaths in the western region. The majority of cases were male, aged 16-84, and involved in animal husbandry, agriculture, and healthcare workers, with a 2:1 male-to-female ratio. The majority of cases were aged 16-84.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study highlights the need for effective measures to prevent CCHF transmission in Afghanistan, such as education, improved animal management, and infection control in hospitals and laboratories, to reduce outbreak risks and enhance public health.</p> Kubra Rahmani, Raihana Behrad, Ali Rahimi, Sharareh Shayan, Gökçe Uğurlu, Nasar Ahmad Shayan Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 Investigating the pivotal role of gut microbiota in cognitive disorders <p><strong>Background:</strong> The human intestine harbors a collection of microorganisms known as intestinal microbiota, which encompasses bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. However, bacteria reign supreme as the most prevalent members of the intestinal microbiota. Notably, the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions of the human body. In addition to its influence on digestion, the gut microbiota also exerts control over the function of the brain and central nervous system, earning the enteric nervous system the title of the "second brain." The behavior and mood, as well as the progression of nervous system diseases like multiple sclerosis, autism, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's, can potentially be regulated by the intestinal microbiota. Through the intestinal nervous system, production of metabolites, stimulation of entero-endocrine cells, and the immune system, the gut microbiota plays a role in regulating the function of the central nervous system. Disturbances caused by improper nutrition, indiscriminate use of antibiotics, stress, anxiety, and depression are significant factors that can worsen these diseases and disrupt the balance of gut microbiota.</p> Elham Akbari, Dawood Hossaini, Murtaza Haidary Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430 A review of the effect of medicinal plant extracts on Leishmania major in vitro and in vivo conditions in Iran <p><strong>Background: </strong>Leishmaniasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and is considered a threat to public health. Iran is also one of the most endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the world. The causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis is a protozoan from the Kinetoplastida order, which in Iran is <em>Leishmania major</em> (rural type) and <em>Leishmania tropica</em> (urban type). More than 70% of leishmaniasis in Iran is <em>Leishmania major</em>. The reservoir of the disease is humans in the urban type and field rodents in the rural type, and the vector is the female mosquito of the genus <em>Phlebotomus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study is organized as a review, in which, by searching the keywords cutaneous leishmaniasis, <em>Leishmania</em> <em>major</em>, plants effective against leishmaniasis in Iran, scientific-research articles, Google Scholar search engine information, Pubmed and Science Direct databases, the available books in this field were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 5-valent antimoan compounds are used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Of course, not all patients need treatment because, in a large number of people, the lesion heals by itself, and due to the side effects of antimoan compounds, it is better to use fewer of these drugs. Therefore, the desire of patients and therapists to use herbal compounds has increased.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Although cutaneous leishmaniasis is not usually associated with high Although cutaneous leishmaniasis is not usually associated with high mortality, the rate of infection is very high and causes malformed skin lesions that remain for more than a year in some cases, and even with standard treatment, scars remain. It remains forever and causes emotional pain for the patient. Therefore, domestic researchers have provided research on herbal treatments against Leishmaniasis, considering the history of traditional treatments in Iran and the scattered vegetation in the country.</p> Hermineh Gholizadeh, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0430