Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases <p><strong><em> Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases</em></strong><em> <strong>(AJID)</strong> </em>is the official publication of Ghalib University launched in 2022. Ghalib University is one of the well-known academic centers of Afghanistan, which has always focused on research in the field of medical sciences, especially infectious diseases. Medical Sciences Research Center of Ghalib University is one of Afghanistan's scientific centers that has published many articles and the office of <em>Afghan</em><em>istan</em><em> Journal of Infectious Diseases</em> is located in this center. Publicity activities, and consultation on the parasitic diseases, and intimate relationship among society members. Afghanistan is one of the countries where infectious diseases are one of the major public health problems. Therefore, it is necessary to launch a journal that can publish various articles about infectious diseases and reflect their status in Afghanistan and the region. <em>AJID</em> is supported and published by Ghalib University of Herat and Kabul and appears twice a year.</p> <p> The main aims of the Journal are: contribution to the field of <strong>infectious diseases</strong>, including all aspects of infectious diseases like parasitology, virology, mycology, entomology and bacteriology (medical and veterinary) which may be submitted by scientists from Afghanistan and all over the world.</p> <p> It is highly appreciated to receive your <strong>Review articles, Original papers, Short com­munications, Case reports and letters to the Editor </strong>on the above mentioned research fields.</p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Place of publication:</strong> Afghanistan</span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"> <strong>Beginning of publication:</strong> 2023 </span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Publisher:</strong> Ghalib University </span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Frequency</strong>: Bi-Quarterly<br /></span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Subjects:</strong> Infectious Diseases </span></p> <p><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="en"><strong>Free and open access:</strong> Yes</span></p> en-US (Dr. Sayed Hussain Mosawi (Ph.D)) (Asrar Ahmad Ehsan) Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0430 OJS 60 The molecular characterisation of bacteria associated with neonatal necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis which were isolated from hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia <p><strong>Background: </strong>The identification and molecular characterisation of bacteria associated with neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (NNE) and sepsis is very important in clarifying the role such bacteria play in the development of this disease.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The present multicentre study was aimed at characterising bacteria isolated from haemocultures obtained from 20 neonates suffering NNE by using traditional and molecular methodologies (16 S rRNA subunit sequencing and multilocus sequence typing - MLST).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> NNE incidence in hospitals in Bogotá was also estimated, finding rates similar to and higher than those reported in the literature (1 to 3 cases of NNE per 1,000 live-births). Staphylococcus epidermidis ST2, ST81, and ST126 sequence types were identified by using these two molecular techniques; the Escherichia coli ST394 sequence type was also identified. Species could not be identified for the Pantoea agglomerans isolate due to the high degree of intra-species identity. Interestingly, the bacterial isolates from the two neonates who died were classified in the same sequence type (i.e. S. epidermidis ST81), even though they came from different hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Such molecular techniques allow characterising bacterial pathogen populations occurring in one or more hospitals in a particular city or determined geographical area and support taking more specific preventative measures directed against such particular clones.</p> Nelson Arturo Salazar, Laura Patricia Uribe, Dora Ines Ríos Copyright (c) 2023 Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0430 Prevalence of rotavirus infection in children under five years, referring to Indira Gandhi Children's Health Hospital, Kabul, Afghanistan <p><strong>Background:</strong> bout 5% of children's deaths in Afghanistan are related to severe rotavirus infections. The aim of this research is to investigate the status of rotavirus gastroenteritis among Afghan children referred to Indira Gandhi Children's Health Hospital from May 2018 to May 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study has conducted at Indira Gandhi Children's Health Hospital. 422 stool samples were examined for rotavirus and questionnaires were filled</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 422 children (244 (57.8%) male and 178 (42.2%) female) examined, 215 children (131 (60.9%) male and 84 (39.1%) female) were positive for rotavirus infection. Significant differences were observed between positive and negative rotavirus cases from the point of view of diarrhea duration time, frequency of diarrhea/24hours and frequency of vomiting/24 hours.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Still more than 50% of diarrhea cases in children are related to rotavirus. The findings of this research emphasize the fact that the Ministry of Health of Afghanistan should seriously follow control and preventive strategies, especially in warm seasons.</p> Aseya Temori, Ahmad Jamshid Mehrpoor, Abdulsaboor Niazi, Abdul Wakil Qarluq, Amanullah Danishyar Copyright (c) 2023 Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0430 A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kabul, Afghanistan form 2020 to 2021 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected diseases in several countries, but Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, is the largest center of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the world. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Kabul during 2021 and 2022.</p> <p>[<strong>Methods</strong>: The present study was a descriptive-cross-sectional retrospective study. It was done based on the information of patients who visited the NMLCP from January, 21, 2021 to October 29, 2022, for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Required information including age, gender, type, number and location of the lesion, and date of the visit were extracted from the hospital database.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result of this study showed that the highest rate of CL was in 2021 and the lowest was in 2022. Most infected were children. Face lesion was the most common lesion in the patients and most of the infected patients had one lesion while others had more lesions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; in this study, we demonstrated that 12,292 people were infected with CL in Kabul in 2021 and 2022. The cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemicity in Afghanistan is mainly due to poverty, lack of access to health services, cultural and social barriers, lack of vector control, destruction of public health infrastructure, poor access to health services, and migration of people from non-endemic regions to endemic provinces.</p> Shekiba Madadi, Shamim Arif, Mustafa Ansari, Ghulam Yahya Amiry, Ziaulhaq Kaihan, Murtaza Haidary Copyright (c) 2023 Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0430 Building a Convolutional Neural Network Model for Tuberculosis Detection Using Chest X-Ray Images <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious disease with a high mortality rate if left untreated. Traditional diagnostic methods, like skin tests and sputum smear cultures, are unreliable and time-consuming. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Deep Learning (DL) can revolutionize healthcare by improving disease diagnosis. This study developed an AI system using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to detect TB by analyzing digitalized chest X-ray (CXR) images, which can significantly improve the accuracy and speed of TB diagnosis, leading to better patient outcomes.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Methods: </strong>A CNN model was developed; it uses a methodology that cuts the edges for analyzing the CXR images for detecting the tuberculosis symptoms in it. A database of chest X-ray images for tuberculosis which was gathered by a team of researchers was used to train the model for detecting tuberculosis<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Result: </strong>This study uses deep learning to predict tuberculosis using a CNN model with 97% accuracy on CXR images. The patient can be informed about the severity of tuberculosis by the model, which analyzes and checks the tuberculosis symptoms in their CXR image.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In summary, the advancement of AI and DL has brought about a significant transformation in the healthcare industry, particularly in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases. The use of AI and DL in tuberculosis diagnosis has been explored in this study through the development of a CNN model that was trained on chest X-ray images. AI and DL can significantly reduce tuberculosis mortality rates by aiding in early detection<strong>.</strong></p> Mohammad Nazir Akbari, Abed Azizi, Sherbano Muhmand, Abdul Wakil Qarluq Copyright (c) 2023 Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0430 Molecular docking and dynamics simulation of piperine as a potential inhibitor of class C beta-lactamase <p><strong>Background: </strong>Antimicrobial resistance is a major concern of human being through the decades which are the cause of hundred thousand of death. β -lactamases secretion by bacteria is one of main resistant mechanism enzymes bacteria to fight antibiotics. Multiple investigation has performed to inhibit the β-lactamase enzyme activity which is one of the important ways to reduce microbial drug resistance and increase the effectiveness of antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Molecular docking was performed to determine the binding pose and binding energy of class C beta lactamase with piperine using Autodock 4.2.2 software. Molecular dynamic simulation was carried out for enzyme utilizing GROMACS 2019.6 program applying AMBER99SB force field.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Molecular docking results and interaction analysis of molecular dynamics simulations showed favorable hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions of Piperine with AmpC. The results of this paper may provide a new perspective to solve the problem of drug resistance caused by bacteria and help to design new beta-lactamase inhibitors in the future.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>By using the valuable techniques of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, this paper suggests that Piperine, which is the main component of black pepper and has significant medicinal effects, can be used to inhibit AmpC β -lactamase class C enzyme.</p> Sayed Hussain Mosawi, Hamza Mansoori, Abdul Musawer Bayan , Najmeh Fani Copyright (c) 2023 Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0430 COVID 19-associated fungal infections: An overview <p>N/A</p> Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh Copyright (c) 2023 Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0430 Cockroaches as Vectors of Parasites of Medical Importance; Reports from Six states in Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cockroaches are not associated with diseases as noted with mosquitoes and fleas (by direct transmission); however, they harbour pathogens (typically those causing gastroenteritis) which are indiscriminately deposited on foods and equipment as the cockroaches comes in contact with them.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This report reveals an association of cockroaches with 13 bacteria species, 7 fungal species and 18 soil transmitted helminths all of which are medically important and have been implicated in many gastro-intestinal disorders. <em>Entamoeba</em> species, <em>Balantidium coli</em>, hookworm and <em>Ascaris lumbricoides</em> have been reported to cause chronic diarrhea, liver complications and stunted growth in the affected people. Pathogen were independently isolated from the alimentary canal and body surface of cockroaches collected from toilets, residential houses, hostels, kitchens, living rooms, wardrobes and health facilities at six different states in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This affirms that cockroaches constitute a serious public health threat in Nigeria. This study emphasizes the need to raise awareness on safeguarding food sources from being contaminated by cockroaches, as it may lead to the mechanical transmission of parasite-related morbidities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Proper personal hygiene and environmental sanitation is strongly recommended since cockroaches only thrive in filthy environments. Periodic fumigation of hospitals and hostels is also imperative to reduce risks of nosocomial infections.</p> Onah, I.E., Uweh P.O., Yaji A.D. Copyright (c) 2023 Afghanistan Journal of Infectious Diseases Tue, 03 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0430